The Science of GeoPain

For a tool to be effective, you need to trust that it will work. Since its inception, GeoPain could be found in clinical trials and in the hands of chronic pain patients. Every feature was crafted in direct response to user feedback while being battle tested in clinics, labs, and homes.

The original concept started with Dr. Alexandre DaSilva (MoxyTech, Co-Founder) while at Harvard Medical School. It has since gone through countless iterations and continues to evolve with the science of chronic pain. For nearly 6 years, top institutions like the University of Michigan continue to use it daily for research and education due to its precise measurement of pain location and intensity.


GeoPain has been presented at dozens of international conferences. While some of our most recent (and exciting) findings are currently being reviewed, several research papers using GeoPain can be found below. You can also learn more about the details of Alex’s brain research on the H.O.P.E. Laboratory website.

Keep checking back. We have several exiting new discoveries soon to be published that will likely change the way you think about pain.

Sensory-Discriminative Three-Dimensional Body Pain Mobile App Measures Versus Traditional Pain Measurement With a Visual Analog Scale: Validation Study.

Kaciroti N, DosSantos MF, Moura B, Bellile EL, Nascimento TD, Maslowski E, Danciu TE, Donnell A, DaSilva AF.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2020 Aug 19;8(8):e17754. doi: 10.2196/17754. PMID: 32124732; PMCID: PMC7468641.

Dopaminergic Regulation of Reward System Connectivity Underpins Pain and Emotional Suffering in Migraine.

Kim DJ, Jassar H, Lim M, Nascimento TD, DaSilva AF.

J Pain Res. 2021 Mar 9;14:631-643. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S296540. PMID: 33727857; PMCID: PMC7955762.

Aberrant Brain Signal Variability and COMT Genotype in Chronic TMD Patients.

Lim M, Nascimento TD, Kim DJ, Ellingrod VL, DaSilva AF.

J Dent Res. 2021 Feb 23:22034521994089. doi: 10.1177/0022034521994089. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33622085.

Differential alteration of fMRI signal variability in the ascending trigeminal somatosensory and pain modulatory pathways in migraine.

Lim M, Jassar H, Kim DJ, Nascimento TD, DaSilva AF.

J Headache Pain. 2021 Jan 7;22(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s10194-020-01210-6. PMID: 33413090; PMCID: PMC7791681.

µ-Opioid Activity in Chronic TMD Pain Is Associated with COMT Polymorphism.

Nascimento TD, Yang N, Salman D, Jassar H, Kaciroti N, Bellile E, Danciu T, Koeppe R, Stohler C, Zubieta JK, Ellingrod V, DaSilva AF.

J Dent Res. 2019 Nov;98(12):1324-1331. doi: 10.1177/0022034519871938. Epub 2019 Sep 6. PMID: 31490699; PMCID: PMC6806132

Impact of chronic migraine attacks and their severity on the endogenous μ-opioid neurotransmission in the limbic system.

Jassar H, Nascimento TD, Kaciroti N, DosSantos MF, Danciu T, Koeppe RA, Smith YR, Bigal ME, Porreca F, Casey KL, Zubieta JK, DaSilva AF

Neuroimage Clin. 2019;23:101905. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101905. Epub 2019 Jun 18

Association of μ-Opioid Activation in the Prefrontal Cortex with Spontaneous Migraine Attacks – Brief Report I.

DaSilva AF, Nascimento TD, DosSantos MF, Lucas S, van HolsbeecK H, DeBoer M, Maslowski E, Love T, Martikainen IK, Koeppe RA, Smith YR, Zubieta JK.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2014 Jun 1;1(6):439-444.

μ-Opioid Activation in the Midbrain During Migraine Allodynia – Brief Report II

Nascimento TD, DosSantos MF, Lucas S, van Holsbeeck H, DeBoer M, Maslowski E, Love T, Martikainen IK, Koeppe RA, Smith YR, Zubieta JK, DaSilva AF.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2014 Jun;1(6):445-50. doi: 10.1002/acn3.66.

3D-Neuronavigation in Vivo Through a Patient’s Brain During a Spontaneous Migraine Headache

DaSilva AF, Nascimento TD, Love T, DosSantos MF, Martikainen IK, Cummiford CM, DeBoer M, Lucas SR, Bender MA, Koeppe RA, Hall T, Petty S, Maslowski E, Smith YR, Zubieta JK.

J Vis Exp. 2014 Jun 2;(88). doi: 10.3791/50682

Imbalance in Dopamine D2/D3 Neurotransmission in the Basal Ganglia During Spontaneous Migraine Attack and Allodynia in Vivo

DaSilva AF, Nascimento T, DosSantos M, Heffernan J, Toback RL, Lucas S, Bellile EL, Maslowski E, Casey KL, Koeppe R, Smith Y, Zubieta, JK.

Neurology, 2017 Apr 25;88(17):1634-1641.

Reduced basal ganglia μ-opioid receptor availability in trigeminal neuropathic pain: a pilot study

DosSantos MF, Martikainen IK, Nascimento TD, Love TM, Deboer MD, Maslowski EC, Monteiro AA, Vincent MB, Zubieta JK, DaSilva AF.

Mol Pain. 2012 Sep 24;8:74. doi: 10.1186/1744-8069-8-74.

High-Definition and Non-invasive Brain Modulation of Pain and Motor Dysfunction in Chronic TMD

Donnell A, D Nascimento T, Lawrence M, Gupta V, Zieba T, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Datta A, Bellile E, DaSilva AF.

Brain Stimul. 2015 Nov-Dec;8(6):1085-92. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.008.

Feasibility of Non-invasive Brain Modulation for Management of Pain Related to Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Advanced Head and Neck Cancer.

Hu XS, Fisher CA, Munz SM, Toback RL, Nascimento TD, Bellile EL, Rozek L, Eisbruch A, Worden FP, Danciu TE, DaSilva AF

Front Hum Neurosci. 2016 Sep 27;10:466